The Importance of Freezing on Lyophilization Cycle Development

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BioPharm International, BioPharm International-03-15-2002, Volume 15, Issue 3

by Thomas W. Patapoff and David E. Overcashier Genentech, Inc. The freezing method used during lyophilization can substantially affect the structure of the ice formed, the water-vapor flow during primary drying, and the quality of the final product. Controlling how a solution freezes can shorten lyophilization cycles and produce more stable formations.