Thomas W. Patapoff


The Importance of Freezing on Lyophilization Cycle Development

by Thomas W. Patapoff and David E. Overcashier Genentech, Inc. The freezing method used during lyophilization can substantially affect the structure of the ice formed, the water-vapor flow during primary drying, and the quality of the final product. Controlling how a solution freezes can shorten lyophilization cycles and produce more stable formations.