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This paper includes a brief introduction to light scattering instruments and techniques, and how they are coupled with fractionation techniques. For several classes of vaccines – including subunit vaccines, mRNA-LNPs, polysaccharide conjugates, and plain old viruses – case studies demonstrate the utility and breadth of analyses using the light scattering toolkit. These include measuring size distributions, characterizing protein-protein binding, and quantifying glycan content in glycoproteins or nucleic acid cargo in nanocarriers. Multiple ways to detect aggregation and other measures of stability are also described.