A Deep Dive into the Characterization of a Complex cIEF Electropherogram from an ADC Using a Novel Integrated icIEF-UV/MS System

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Charge heterogeneity is present in most biopharmaceutical protein products. During the manufacturing process, charge heterogeneity of the protein therapeutics can occur due to enzymatic cleavage and chemical post-translational modifications (PTM). For therapeutics like ADCs, not only the antibody contributes to the heterogeneity but also the linker and payload, which add even more complexity to the charge variant profiles. Characterizing the charge heterogeneity of ADCs is essential for critical quality attribute (CQA) assessment to ensure drug safety, efficacy, and potency.