Scale Up

Apr 01, 2005
BioPharm International
Creation and qualification of scale-down models is essential for performing several critical activities that support process validation and commercial manufacturing. This combined article is the fifth in the "Elements of Biopharmaceutical Production" series. Part 1 (March 2005) covered fermentation. In this segment, we present some guidelines and examples for scale-down of common downstream unit operations used in biotech processes — chromatography and filtration.
Mar 01, 2005
BioPharm International
Lot-to-lot variations between raw materials can greatly impact process performance.
Jan 01, 2005
BioPharm International
In order to institute a GxP mindset across the organization, support and respect for quality systems should come from the top down.
Sep 01, 2004
BioPharm International
Filtration is one of the most commonly used unit operations in the manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals. This is the second part of the fourth article in the "Elements of Biopharmaceutical Production" series. In this second segment, Manoj Menon and Frank Riske present an approach for the development and optimization of a TFF application, followed by a contribution from Jennifer Campbell and Elizabeth Goodrich reviewing key issues involved in validation of a TFF step.
Aug 01, 2004
BioPharm International
Filtration is one of the most commonly used unit operations in biopharmaceutical manufacturing. Available formats include direct or normal flow filtration (NFF) and cross or tangential flow filtration (TFF). These methods are used for sterilization and virus filtration, depth filtration or ultrafiltration, and diafiltration applications. Some common objectives include:
Sep 01, 2003
BioPharm International
By BioPharm International Editors
The medical benefits of transgenes - effective against diseases such as cancer, HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis - require either a viral or nonviral vector. Nonviral vectors have lower immunogenicity, better safety profiles, and improved stability, as well as being less expensive and easier to produce. The first article in this series reviewed techniques suitable for the purification of plasmid DNA in the absence of added RNase. This article investigates a downstream process capable of producing gram quantities of pure plasmid DNA.
Aug 01, 2003
BioPharm International
By BioPharm International Editors
Although gene therapy and DNA vaccination suggest promising new approaches to disease treatment - and nonviral vectors (which are cheap and easy to manufacture) afford low immunogenicity, better safety profiles, and improved stability - commercial-scale purification of plasmid DNA remains difficult, particularly if bovine-derived ribonuclease A is left out of the process. This article series reviews the benefits and limitations of current plasmid DNA purification and suggests an RNase-free downstream process that is scalable, robust, and meets the requirements set by industry regulators.
Jul 15, 2003
BioPharm International
By BioPharm International Editors
For maximum efficiency, high product yield, and purity, you must produce a homogeneous packed bed every time you perform a separation. Irregularities in packing cause uneven flow within the bed, resulting in band broadening, zone mixing, changes in flow rate, and subsequent loss of product yield and quality. Here we provide guidelines for reproducible column packing along with useful troubleshooting tips.
Jan 15, 2003
BioPharm International
By BioPharm International Editors
Anurag Rathore, Pharmacia Corporation and Ajoy Velayudhan
Optimizing your purification and separation process when your complex biological feedstock is ready for scale-up can be daunting. Your design process can be streamlined, simplified, and made cost efficient if you supplement your empirical approach with the theoretical and experimental tools presented in this article.
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