FDA also is taking steps to make drug safety information more accessible to the public, to better identify product safety signals, and to determine the need for major changes in current policies and programs. Initial actions have involved establishing a drug safety oversight board and a Drug Watch website that will post information about emerging safety concerns.
CRITICAL PRODUCTSThe larger issue is whether and how to shift from FDA's current post-approval safety monitoring system for drugs and biologics, which relies on a spontaneous adverse event reporting system (AERS) that receives reports from manufacturers, health professionals, and patients through the MedWatch program. This system is good at catching signals of serious problems for all approved drugs, is relatively simple to operate, and can detect adverse events (AEs) that do not appear in premarket clinical trials. But because it relies on third parties to submit AE reports, the system can be slow and often yields incomplete and sometimes irrelevant information.
FDA has established additional systems to monitor the safety and manufacturing quality of inherently complex vaccines, blood products, and emerging cellular products. Because vaccines and biologics often are critical to public health and lack substitutes if quality concerns necessitate pulling a product off the market, FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) emphasizes manufacturing process controls and product risk management to prevent and limit safety problems, explained CBER Director Jesse Goodman at the April meeting of the FDA Science Board.
This involves extensive screening of blood donors and additional testing of donated blood to detect viral infections and ensure the safety of the nation's blood supply and blood products. Blood facilities have added procedures to prevent blood contamination by "mad cow disease" prions and to detect the presence of West Nile virus. Vaccine safety issues are collected and analyzed by a vaccine AERS, which is jointly operated by FDA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The two agencies also collaborate on studying vaccine safety issues using data obtained from healthcare systems.
A more recent challenge for CBER is to ensure the safety of an expanding number of tissue and cellular products used in transplants. Earlier this year, CBER adopted procedures for assessing adverse reactions associated with human cells, tissues and related products, and a CBER Tissue Safety Team is developing policies for responding to tissue-related AEs.
AEs involving biologics are analyzed by CBER's Office of Biostatistics and Epidemiology to determine the need for further enforcement action. Biotech companies are required to report manufacturing problems (biological product deviations or BPDs) that may affect the safety, purity, or potency of biologics within 45 days of discovery. In 2004, CBER received more than 20,000 BPDs, the majority involving blood collection and blood products. CBER's Office of Compliance and Biologics Quality is responsible for following up with manufacturers on adverse event or product deviation reports, and may request a field investigation or initiate a product recall or market withdrawal if warranted.