Amino Acid Analysis
AAA is hydrolysis of a protein or peptide into its individual components and is often used for compositional analysis of naturally occurring amino acids. Advancing work concentrates on automation and handling multiple samples simultaneously.Nanogen, Inc. has two new US patents: "Amino Acid Sequence Pattern Matching" and "Enzymatic modification of a nucleic acid-synthetic binding unit conjugate."2 ParAllele BioScience, Inc. offers an extremely large assay panel with a capacity of 20,000 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) to be used in human genotypifg studies.3 Sigma-Aldrich launched its Panorama Human p53 Protein Functional Microarray. Developed by Procognia and distributed exclusively by Sigma-Aldrich, the p53 protein microarray is based on a novel, proprietary technology that ensures the protein is correctly folded and confers full functionality.4
Biocalorimetry studies molecular interactions and conformational energetics by direct measurement of the change in enthalpy for a biological process. Technical societies are the best source of information. On the current calendar is the 2005 North American Thermal Analysis Society (NATAS) Conference in Universal City CA, September 18-21, 2005. Prior to the central meeting, a short course is offered by NATAS September 17-18, 2005, at Sheraton Universal Hotel, Universal City, CA.5
The International Society for Biological Calorimetry is a technical society devoted to this topic. The society will be holding its 14th conference (founded in 1973) in Gdansk Poland June 2-8, 2006.6 Major topics scheduled for discussion include:
The Society also has expanded its reach to South America. The second Campinas Symposium on Calorimetry and Chemical Thermodynamics will be held at the University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil April 9-13 2006. For more information, refer to http:// http://www.biocalorimetry.org/.
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a miniaturized instrumental version of traditional electrophoresis. CE has been applied to separations historically performed by gel electrophoresis. The most notable example is the adaptation of CE technology in multi-channel DNA sequencers, which enabled the sequencing of the human genome in less than two years. In a sister publication (LCGC North America), Ted Weir related the use of CE to replace SDS-PAGE.7
"The CE-SDS technique has two unique advantages that eliminate the problems encountered in other CE techniques such as capillary zone electrophoresis. First, the high viscosity of the sieving polymer reduces EOF (electroosmotic flow), to a very low level. This eliminates the major source of poor reproducibility of migration times and peak areas in CE. Second, the high negative charge density of SDS-protein complexes eliminates the problem of protein adsorption to the capillary wall.
"Recently, chip-based instruments for analysis of biopolymers have been introduced by three companies. These employ photolithographic technologies to microfabricate devices with channels etched into substrates such as glass and plastics for electrically driven separations. All three commercial systems provide chips and application kits for the CE-SDS chemistry."