Upstream Processing

Mar 10, 2006
BioPharm International
By BioPharm International Editors
Many of these terms have more general definitions as well. Those given here are specific to their application in cell culture and fermentation.
Mar 10, 2006
BioPharm International
By BioPharm International Editors
At the heart of modern biotechnology is the ability to manipulate DNA, the astonishing molecule that contains the genetic code of all life on earth. But fermentation and cell culture are also the practical art of keeping cells alive and growing in an artificial environment. As a result, the science of cell culture also includes a healthy focus on the natural processes that keep cells alive.
Mar 10, 2006
BioPharm International
By BioPharm International Editors
Fermentation is an industrial process, but it's probably easier to understand it as something more familiar: raising a living creature. Every fermentation process has to answer several basic questions: Where will the cells live and grow? What will they nourish themselves with? Will the cells live suspended in a mix of water and nutrients (the medium) or do they need to be contained or allowed to attach themselves to a solid base? How will food and air be distributed so all the individual cells get their share? Should all the nutrients the cells need be added at one time, or should the cells be fed additional food as fermentation progresses? How will the progress of fermentation be monitored to ensure the best possible results?
Mar 10, 2006
BioPharm International
By BioPharm International Editors
To learn more about the processes of fermentation and cell culture used in the production of biopharmaceuticals, you can refer to our advertisers or to the following publications, organizations, and web sites.
Mar 10, 2006
BioPharm International
By BioPharm International Editors
Anyone who has ever hoisted a glass of a local microbrew has experienced the results of the oldest form of biotechnology?fermentation, the process by which living cells obtain energy through the breakdown of glucose and other molecules. The basic technique of brewing has not changed much in the past 6,000 years, but it is still an excellent illustration of the principles that underlie some of today's most sophisticated biotech production.
Mar 01, 2006
BioPharm International
By BioPharm International Editors
Minimum disruption and maximum gain result when adopting a distributed process control and data management system for a cell culture and fermentation lab.
Feb 09, 2006
BioPharm International
By BioPharm International Editors
The speed at which a recombinant protein product progresses into clinical trials is of vital importance for both small biotechnology companies as well as the biopharma groups of large pharmaceutical companies. For mammalian cell lines, two major impacts on the project timeline are the ability to quickly identify a product candidate and subsequently produce a high-expressing cell line for that product. The advent of various computer-based protein design methodologies and antibody discovery technologies for developing protein therapeutics has resulted in large numbers of protein or antibody variants that must be screened to identify the best clinical candidate.
Feb 09, 2006
BioPharm International
By BioPharm International Editors
Rapid, efficient, and cost-effective protein expression and purification strategies are required for high throughput structural genomics and the production of therapeutic proteins. Fusion protein technology represents one strategy to achieve these goals. Fusion protein technology can facilitate purification, enhance protein expression and solubility, chaperone proper folding, reduce protein degradation, and in some cases, generate protein with a native N-terminus. No technology or reagent is a panacea, however, and establishing tools and optimal conditions for each protein remains an empirical exercise. With this in mind, protein fusions are a leading option to produce difficult-to-express proteins, especially in Escherichia coli.
Feb 09, 2006
BioPharm International
By BioPharm International Editors
Managing codon pair interactions and simultaneously optimizing the entire set of parameters requires advanced computationally intensive design tools.
Feb 09, 2006
BioPharm International
By BioPharm International Editors
Yeast systems have been a staple for producing large amounts of proteins for industrial and biopharmaceutical use for many years. Yeast can be grown to very high cell mass densities in well-defined medium. Recombinant proteins in yeast can be over-expressed so the product is secreted from the cell and available for recovery in the fermentation solution. Proteins secreted by yeasts are heavily glycosylated at consensus glycosylation sites. Thus, expression of recombinant proteins in yeast systems historically has been confined to proteins where post-translations glycosylation patterns do not affect the function of proteins. Several yeast expression systems are used for recombinant protein expression, including Sacharomyces, Scizosacchromyces pombe, Pichia pastoris and Hansanuela polymorpha.
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