Combined measurements of net charge and kD were made in order to understand the difference between two formulations with different stability behavior. While they have approximately the same net charge, their stability is dominated by the secondary effects of asymmetric charge distributions and hydrophobic residues.
Liposomes are made of lipid bilayers and are often used in drug delivery by encapsulating the core with therapeutic drugs. During liposome research, formulation, manufacturing and quality control, it is of great importance to monitor liposome size and encapsulation. Field flow fractionation (FFF) with the concomitant use of Multi-Angle Light Scattering (MALS) and Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering (QELS, aka dynamic light scattering) is an ideal tool for such characterization.