Researchers recently implemented and evaluated an optical-fiber system as a process-monitoring tool during lyophilization.
The study recorded temperature profiles of mannitol, sucrose, and trehalose using various prototypes of optical fiber sensors
(OFSs) (14). The data were compared to data obtained with conventional thermocouples or Pirani/capacitance manometry with
drying. The researchers reported that the data obtained with the OFS in contact with product were in good agreement with data
obtained by thermocouples or Pirani/capacitance manometry. The OFSs showed higher sensitivity, faster response, and better
resolution compared to thermocouples (14). Another study examined the use of a soft sensor for in-line monitoring of the
primary drying step of a freeze-drying process in vials (15).
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