The author would like to thank his former colleagues in process development, manufacturing and research at Amgen for explaining
their needs to him and enriching his understanding of bioprocesses through many years of collaboration.
Zhiwu (David) Fang is the founder and principal consultant of Systems Quality-by-Design, Inc., Newbury Park, CA, 626.716.2016, email@example.com
1. Thompson TB, Kontomaris K. Technology roadmap for computational fluid dynamics. 1999. Available from: http://www.chemicalvision2020.org/cfd.html.
2. Hassan YA, Schmidl W, Ortiz-Villafuerte. Investigation of three-dimensional two-phase flow structure in a bubbly pipe
flow. J Meas Sci Technol. 1998;9(3):309–326.
3. Pordal HS, Matice CJ, Fry TJ. The role of computational fluid dynamics in the pharmaceutical industry. Pharm Technol.
4. Kremer DM, Hancock BC. Process simulation in the pharmaceutical industry: a review of some basic physical models. J Pharm
5. Wassgren C. The application of computational modeling to pharmaceutical materials science. MRS Bulletin. 2006;31(11):900–4.
6. Kremer DM, Hancock BC. Process simulation in the pharmaceutical industry: A review of some basic physical models. J Pharm
7. Anderson JD. Computational fluid dynamics: the basics with application. New York: McGraw Hill; 1995.
8. Derksen JJ. Numerical simulation of solid suspension in a stirred tank. AIChE J. 2003;49:2700–14.
9. Decker S, Sommerfeld M. Calculation of particle suspension in agitated vessels with the Eulerian-Lagrange approach. Inst
Chem Eng Symp Ser. 1996;140:71–82.
10. Crowe CT, Sommerfeld M, Tsuji Y. Fundamentals of gas-particle and gas-droplet flows. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1998.
11. Barrue H, Bertrand J, Cristol B, Xuereb C. Eulerian simulation of dense solid–liquid suspension in multi-stage stirred
vessel. J Chem Eng Jpn. 1999;34:585–94.
12. Bakker A, Fasano JB, Myers KJ. Effect of flow pattern on the solids distribution in a stirred tank. 8th European Conference
on Mixing, IChemE Symposium Series No. 136. 1994 Sept 21–23; Cambridge, UK.
13. Micale G, Montante G, Grisafi F, Brucato A, Godfrey J. CFD simulation of particle distribution in stirred reactors. Trans
Inst Chem Eng. Part A. 2000;78:435–44.
14. Micale G, Girsafi F, Rizzuti L, Brucato A. CFD simulation of particle suspension height in stirred vessels. Chem Eng
Res Des. 2004;82:1204–13.
15. Ljungqvist M, Rasmuson A. Numerical simulation of the two-phase flow in an axially stirred reactor. Part A Trans Inst
Chem Eng. 2001;79:533–46.
16. Montante G, Micale G, Magelli F, Brucato A. Experiments and CFD prediction of solid particle distribution in a reactor
agitated with four pitched blade turbines. Trans Inst Chem Eng Part A. 2001;79:1005–10.
17. Barrue H, Bertrand J, Cristol B, Xuereb C. Eulerian simulation of dense solid–liquid suspension in multi-stage stirred
vessel. J Chem Eng Jpn. 2001;34(5):585–594.
18. Jenne M, Reuss M. A critical assessment on the use of k-ε turbulence models for simulation of the turbulent liquid flow
induced by a Rushton-turbine in baffled stirred-tank reactors. Chem Eng Sci. 1999;54(17):3921–41.
19. Bakker A, Van den Akker HEA. Single phase flow in stirred reactors. Chem Eng Res Des. 1998;72:583–593.
20. Jaworski Z, Zakrzewska B. Modelling of the turbulent wall jet generated by a pitched blade turbine impeller: the effect
of turbulence model. Chem Eng Res Des. 2002;80(8):846–854.
21. Armenante PM, Luo C, Chou C-C, Fort I, Medek J. Velocity profiles in a closed, unbaffled vessel: comparison between experimental
LDV data and numerical CFD predictions. Chem Eng Sci. 1997;52(20):3483–92.
22. Alcamo R, Micale G, Grisafi F, Brucato A, Ciofalo M. Large-eddy simulation of turbulent flow in an unbaffled stirred
tank driven by a Rushton turbine. Chem Eng Sci. 2005;60(8–9):2303–16.
23. Murthy BN, Joshi JB. Assessment of standard k-ε, RSM and LES turbulence models in a baffled stirred vessel agitated by
various impeller designs. Chem Eng Sci. 2008;63(22):5468–95.
24. Torré J-P, Fletcher DF, Lasuye T, Xuereb C. Single and multiphase CFD approaches for modelling partially baffled stirred
vessels: Comparison of experimental data with numerical predictions. Chem Eng Sci. 2007;62(22):6246–62.
25. Revstedt J, Fuchs L, Tragardh C. Large eddy simulation of the turbulent flow in a stirred tank. Chem Eng Sci. 1998;53:4041–53.
26. Eggels JGM. Direct and large-eddy simulation of turbulent fluid flow using the lattice-Boltzmann scheme. Int J Heat Fluid
27. Derksen J, Harry J, Van den Akker EA. Large eddy simulations on the flow driven by a Rushton turbine. AIChE J. 1999;45(2):209–21.