eluent The substance used to recover samples from a chromatography column; sometimes an elution solvent. When a buffering agent is
used, it is called an elution buffer. Sometimes a solvent is used and just referred to as the eluent.
Washing out; removing adsorbed material with a solvent or buffering agent.
Electrospray ionization is used to transfer analytes from liquid to a gaseous phase in an ionized form.
elution profile A graph made to show how much material is being carried out of the column by the eluent in column chromatography over time.
The graph will show a number of different peaks; each peak represents a different separated material from the original mixed
substance. Also called a chromatogram.
elution volume The amount of eluent that passes through the column in column chromatography before a particular peak appears in an elution
profile (that is, before a specific substance of interest comes out with it). Also, the volume during which a particular compound
Electron microscopy; in which instruments focus electrons like optical microscopes focus light. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission
electron microscopy (TEM) are sometimes used in bioanalytical laboratories.
European Medicines Evaluation Agency; the agency responsible for regulating biopharmaceuticals in the European Union.
emulsification A process that creates a stable mixture of two liquids that normally would not mix together (such as oil and water) by forcing
one to disperse in the other as droplets.
enantiomer Either of a pair of chemical compounds whose molecular structures have a mirror-image relationship to each other (see diastereomer).
encapsidation During formation of a virus particle, the process by which nucleic acid is incorporated (encapsidated) into the viral capsid.
(See also capsid)
encapsulation To enclose in a capsule, usually one made of a biodegradable polymer.
endogenous Growing or developing from a cell or organism, or arising from causes within the organism.
endonuclease A restriction enzyme that breaks up nucleic acid molecules at specific sites along their length. Such enzymes are naturally
produced by microorganisms as a defense against foreign nucleic acids.
endoplasmic reticulum A highly specialized and complex network of branching, interconnecting tubules (surrounded by membranes) found in the cytoplasm
of most animal and plant cells. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is where ribosomes make proteins. It appears "rough" because
it is covered with ribosomes. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is the site for synthesis and metabolism of lip-ids, and it
is involved in detoxifying chemicals such as drugs and pesticides.
endotoxin A poison in the form of a fat/sugar complex (lipopolysaccharide) that forms a part of the cell wall of some types of bacteria.
It is released only when the cell is ruptured and can cause septic shock and tissue damage. Pharmaceuticals are tested routinely
engineering batch A batch run at the defined cGMP production scale for the purpose of evaluating the performance of any or all of the unit operations
prior to initiating cGMP manufacturing. It is not intended to be released as a fully compliant cGMP batch. An engineering
batch may be executed using a batch record, but need not comply with all instructions and requirements.
enthalpy Heat content; enthalpy change of a chemical reaction equals the difference between the heat put into breaking bonds and the
heat released by new bond formation.
environmental monitoring A documented series of sampling and testing performed on controlled environments to assure compliance with room classifications.
Testing typically includes monitoring of viables and non-viables via standardized sampling methods performed at established
enzymes Proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions by causing or speeding up reactions without being changed in the process themselves.
epithelium (epithelial) The layer(s) of cells between an organism or its tissues or organs and their surrounding environment (skin cells, inner linings
of lungs or digestive organs, outer linings of kidneys, and so on).