Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy an analytical method that generates a spectrum (based on the electromagnetic environment surrounding the nucleus of each atom
in a molecule) that serves as the chemical signature of each molecule and aids in structure determination.
nonconformity A deficiency in a characteristic, product specification, process parameter, record, or procedure that renders the quality
of a product unacceptable, indeterminate or not according to specified requirements. [From FDAQSG]
norleucine An amino acid, not produced by mammalian cells, but may be produced by many bacteria, especially under conditions of nutrient-poor
media. NorLeu may be substituted for Leu when a mammalian protein is expressed in bacterial cells, creating new product variants
that may be of safety concern.
N-terminal Amino-terminal or amine terminus; the amine terminus of a protein chain (with a free a-amino group).
nucleic acids DNA or RNA: chainlike molecules composed of nucleotides.
nucleosides Glycosylamines consisting of a nucleobase bound to a ribose or deoxyribose sugar. The most prevalent examples of nucleosides
are adenosine, cytidine, guanosine, thymidine, and uridine.
nucleotides Molecules composed of a nitrogen-rich base, phosphoric acid, and a sugar. The bases can be adenine (A), cyto-sine (C), guanine
(G), thymine (T), or uracil (U). These molecules comprise the basic structural units of RNA and DNA.
nucleus The largest organelle, an ovoid or sphere that contains all the cell's genetic material and a nucleolus that builds ribosomes.
oligonucleotide A short nucleotides polymer, typically with 30 or fewer bases.
oligosaccharide (see carbohydrate)
Omega (Ω) The value of Omega is square angstroms (Å2). Omega can be calculated theoretically for any ionic structure based a three-dimensional structure. Historically, a physical
model of the molecule was constructed and mounted between a light source and a screen. The area of the shadow was measured
for many orientations and then an average calculated. The measurement of Omega provides a mechanism for comparison of different
(ionic) species for this attribute.
oncogene A gene that, when expressed, can lead cells to become cancerous, by removing the normal constraints on their growth.
Out-of-specifications result; a result that is outside the range of an approved specification. An OOS result must be investigated to determine whether it
is due to laboratory error, operator error, or process error; and a judgment made whether the result itself is valid (accurate
estimate of the true value of the analyte) or invalid. Usually, confirming an OOS result as valid results in affected lot(s)
of product being rejected.
Out of tolerance; 1. refers to equipment or instrument which, when its calibration is checked, is outside of a defined range and requires adjustment
or repair. 2. Out of trend; a test result that is unexpected or outside of its historical or statistical trends but within specifications; and must be
investigated as a type of exception. The investigation is very similar to an OOS investigation, with the difference that product
disposition may not be affected by a confirmed out of trend result.
operon A group of functionally related, adjacent genes that operate as a unit to synthesize functionally related proteins (enzymes).
An operon group includes an operator region, a regulator gene, and structural genes equivalent to the number of enzymes in
optimization Determining and implementing process operation at the best possible and most affordable efficiency.
Operational Qualification; documented verification that all aspects of a facility, utility or equipment that can affect product quality operate to Intended
throughout all anticipated ranges.
organelle A structurally discrete component that performs a certain function inside a eukaryotic cell.