Bioterminology - - BioPharm International



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inoculum Material (usually cells) used to inoculate.

intact mass analysis A characterization technique using mass spectrometry that provides a mass measurement and an estimate of the overall heterogeneity of a protein.

intellectual property Any and all patent applications or patents, or trade secrets that make up the proprietary information of a company.

interferon A type of cytokine glycoprotein made by animal cells to inhibit virus reproduction to fight infection. Interferons also affect growth and development (differentiation) in certain normal and tumor cells.

interleukins Cytokines produced by lymphocytes or macrophages that modulate the immune response.

intermediates Substances formed in the middle stages of a series of processing steps; "stepping stones" between a parent substance and a final product.

ion mobility separation (IMS) A technology that differentiates ions based on a combination of factors: their size, shape and charge, as well as their mass. IMS provides an orthogonal dimension of separation. Coupling of ion mobility measurements and separations with tandem mass spectrometry can be applied to the gas-phase structures of biomolecules. (See also HDMS)

iontophoretic delivery Introduction of drugs through intact skin using the transfer of ions by applying a direct electric current.

IQ Installation Qualification; documented verification that all aspects of a facility, utility, or equipment that can affect product quality adhere to approved specifications and are correctly installed.

IRB Institutional review board; a committee or other group (composed of medical, scientific, and nonscientific members) that is responsible for protecting the rights, safety, and well-being of human subjects participating in clinical trials.

isoelectric focusing An analytical technique that uses electrophoresis in apH gradient (for example 4 to 10) to determine the isoelectric point (see also pI) of a polypeptide. May be performed in a gel, in a liquid, or in a capillary tube (cIEF).

isoform A specific and distinct structure or form of a biological molecule among a family of biological molecules with very similar structures and comparable, but not necessarily equal, action for the same product.

isolation chambers Laboratory chambers designed to protect workers from dangerous chemicals, organisms, or substances they are working with (or the reverse); includes hooded workstations, isolators, and clean rooms, for example.

In vitro (literally "in glass") studies make use of laboratory accessories for controlled conditions. In vivo studies are performed using living organisms as subjects—and thus involve many more variables in their results.
isomerization Changes that create isomers (molecules with the same chemical make-up but a different structure), which alters the activity of most proteins.

This technician is using a glove box, a type of isolation chamber.
isopycnic Describes molecules that have the same buoyant density in ultracentrifugation. Molecules of differing densities form different regions in equilibrium within a density gradient medium.

isotonic Having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, thus easily mixed with the blood.

isotope An alternative form of an element having a different number of neutrons in its atomic nucleus.


kDa kiloDalton; a thousand Daltons.

knockout Gene targeting; for instance, a knockout mouse is one in which a single gene is inactivated ("knocked out"), leaving other genes unaffected; provides the best way to delineate the function of a gene.

LAL assay Limulus amebocyte lysate assay; detects pyrogenic endotoxins using a reagent that was discovered in the blood of Limulus horseshoe crabs.

laminar flow clean air device A clean bench, clean workstation, and wall or ceiling modules or other devices that incorporate a filter and motor blower for supplying clean air in one direction for a controlled work space; more correctly referred to as "unidirectional airflow," which is air flow having generally parallel streams operating in a single direction and with uniform velocity over its cross section.

LC/MS systems Liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry systems laboratory instruments that combine two popular analytical methods into one piece of equipment.

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