Increasing Lyophilization Productivity, Flexibility, and Reliability Using Liquid Nitrogen Refrigeration–Part 1 - - BioPharm International

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Increasing Lyophilization Productivity, Flexibility, and Reliability Using Liquid Nitrogen Refrigeration–Part 1


BioPharm International
Volume 20, Issue 11

6. Trappler EH. Assure batch uniformity for freeze-dried products. Available from: http://www.pharmamanufacturing.com/articles/2005/191.html.

7. Stewart P. Liquid nitrogen: why is progress slow? economic and environmental factors. Pharma Techn Europe 1997;3:44.

8. Liu J, Rouse D. Using liquid nitrogen to maximize lyophilization manufacturing capacity. BioProcess Int. 2005 Feb.

9. Praxair, Inc. Praxair announces agreement with Hull Company to jointly market freeze dryer systems with cryogenic refrigeration. News Release 2001;Mar 20.

10. Usifroid. Liquid nitrogen applied to freeze drying: performance, reliability, flexibility. 2006. Available from: http://www.usifroid.com/lks/fichiers/1/tele/1115/LN2%204%20pages%20Anglais.pdf.

11. Telstar. GN2-Tech. Product brief;2005.

12. ASHRAE Refrigeration Handbook. Ultralow-temperature refrigeration. 2002;Chapter 39.

13. Lines J. How low can you go? Chem Process 2003 Jan;35.


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