xenotransplantation Implantation of living cells, tissues, or solid organs from one species into another, used when human donors are unavailable
or when a temporary or "bridge" organ is needed; a controversial practice given concerns about potential viral transmission
and strong immuological reactions.
Yeast artificial chromosome, a vector used to clone DNA fragments up to 100,000 base-pairs long. YACs are constructed from the telomeric, centromeric,
and replication sequences of yeast cells.
yeast A single-celled fungus (eukaryote).
2006 Physicians' Desk Reference (Thomson Healthcare, Montvale, NJ 2006)
Biopharmaceutical Drug Design and Development, S. Wu-Pong and Y. Rojanasakul, Eds. (Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 1999)
W. Bains, Biotechnology from A to Z, 3rd ed. (Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK 2004)
Expediting Drug and Biologics Development: A Strategic Approach, 3rd ed., Steven E. Linberg, Ed. (Parexel International Corporation, Waltham, MA 2006)
FDA-Speak: A Glossary and Agency Guide, 2nd ed. D.E. Snyder, Ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 2001)
J.F. Huxsoll, Quality Assurance for Biopharmaceuticals (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York 1994)
J.M. Walker and M. Cox, The Language of Biotechnology: A Dictionary of Terms, 2nd ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC 1995)
The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals,14th Edition (Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, Available September 2006)
The Merck Manual of Medical Information Second Home Edition (Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ 2003)
P. Singleton and D. Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, New York 2002)
Process Validation in Manufacturing of Biopharmaceuticals, Anurag S. Rathore and Gail Sofer, Eds. (CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL 2005)
J.D. Watson et al., Recombinant DNA, 2nd ed. (Scientific American Books, distrib. by W.H. Freeman and Company, New York 1992). The 3rd edition is expected to
be released Dec. 15, 2006 with the subtitle Fundamentals of Genes and Genomes.
American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists , Arlington, VA
Biotechnology Industry Organization Washington, DC;
California Separation Science Society San Francisco, CA
U.S. Food and Drug Administration Rockville, Maryland Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research,
http://www.fda.gov/cber/index.html Center for Drug Evaluation and Research,
http://www.fda.gov/cder/ Electronic Freedom-of-Information Reading Room,