Guide to BioTerminology 2nd edition - - BioPharm International

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Guide to BioTerminology 2nd edition

BioPharm International


surface plasmon resonance A phenomenon used in analytical chemistry whereby plasmons (electromagnetic waves formed by electrons) propagating along the surface of a thin metal layer resonate with light coming through a prism at a specific angle, stopping that light from reflecting. The electrical field thus created is very sensitive to chemical changes (such as molecular interactions) in a solution interfacing with the surface, which causes specific measurable differences in the angle of light necessary for the phenomenon to perpetuate. SPR biosensors detect and measure those changes.

surfactant Any substance that changes the nature of a surface, such as lowering the surface tension of water.

suspension Particles floating in (not necessarily on) a liquid medium, or the mix of particles and liquid itself.

sustained delivery Drug delivery in which the duration of release, action, and bioavailability are controlled and reproducible; usually a depot (reservoir) of drug is created in the body (at the injection site, for example), and the delivery matrix releases the therapeutic molecules over a period of time. Biodegradable polymers are under study as microspheres and other methods of sustained delivery for biomolecules.

symbiotic Living together for mutual benefit.

synthesis Creating products through chemical and enzymatic reactions. Bioprocessing lets living cells or organisms do this work.

T–U

tangential flow filtration A separation method that transfers components of one system (stream) into another. The stream the product is being extracted from crosses the stream that the product is being transferred to multiple times.

target Organ, tissue, or molecule involved in a disease that is modified or affected by a potential therapeutic.

targeted delivery Drug delivery that is specifically directed to the therapeutic molecule's site of action by one of various means such as a targeting monoclonal antibody (that binds specifically to a particular kind of receptor) or surgery (in which a drug formulation is injected into a particular location, such as the liver).

T cell A synonym for T lymphocyte, T cells are a type of leukocyte (white cells of the blood and lymphoid system) that (along with the less numerous B lymphocytes in the bloodstream) are necessary for conferring antibody-independent cellular immunity. Of their subsets, cytotoxic or killer T cells can kill cells bearing specific antigens, helper T cells can help B cells form antibodies, and suppressor T cells suppress the activity of other cells involved in immune responses.

Team Biologics A partnership between FDA's Office of Regulatory Affairs (ORA) and CBER to focus on inspection and compliance issues in biologics. Its goal is to ensure the quality and safety of biologic products and resolve inconsistencies.

tertiary structure The three-dimensional folding (its normal state) of a polypeptide chain in a protein molecule.

Thr Threonine, one of over 20 naturally occurring amino acids.

thrixotropy The property of some non-newtonian pseudoplastic fluids to show a time-dependent change in viscosity.

throughput The movement of a material through a system; specifically, a measure of the quantity of a substance passing through a piece of equipment or section of a pipe or pump line during a specified time.

tissue culture Growing plant or animal tissues outside of the body, as in a nutrient medium in a laboratory; similar to cell culture, but cells are maintained in their structured, tissue form.

titer A measured sample. (To draw a measured, representative sample from a larger amount is to titrate.)

TOC analysis Total organic carbon analysis, an analytical method whereby organic carbon is oxidized to produce CO2, the amount of which produced is directly proportional to the amount of carbon present. Measurement of CO2, as a result, indicates the presence of organic molecules. The biopharmaceutical industry uses TOC analysis to test pure water and to evaluate and validate cleaning procedures.


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