Serine, one of over 20 naturally occurring amino acids.
serum The watery portion of an animal or plant fluid (such as blood) remaining after coagulation. When cheese is made, whey is the
milk serum that's left.
severity A measure of the possible consequences of a hazard [from ICH Q9].
shear Tearing force (to cells), such as that caused by blending or stirring.
shelf life The period of time during which a drug can be stored without decreasing in quality, safety, or efficacy.
Silicon dioxide, SiO
, occurring naturally in crystalline, microcrystalline, and amorphous form; used to make glass and ceramics, and used in pharmaceuticals.
Silica gel is a jelly-like form of silicon dioxide that is widely used as a solid medium, as a dehumidifying and dehydrating agent,
and in many chemical processes.
Steam-in-place; using steam to clean and sterilize equipment or systems without removing them from their installed location (see CIP).
skid Common term for a complete chromatography system on wheels.
Simulated moving bed, a method in liquid chromatography of making separations constant rather than a batch process.
sodium hydroxide A highly caustic, alkaline chemical (NaOH) used to neutralize acids and destroy soft body tissues (with potassium hydroxide,
the most widely used caustic agent in industry).
Vacinnia (cowpox virus used for smallpox vaccination in humans)
solubility The degree to which a solute can be dissolved in a defined solvent (sometimes describes the opposite of hydrophobicity).
solute A substance that is dissolved in a solvent; the part of a solution that is uniformly dispersed in another substance.
somatic cell In higher organisms, a cell that (unlike germ cells) carries the full genetic make-up of an organism.
Standard operating procedures; detailed (step-by-step), instructions to achieve uniformity in the performance of a specific process or piece of equipment,
which are approved by the quality control unit and used for GMP operations.
Southwestern blot Analytical blotting technique for studying DNA–protein interactions using labeled DNA to detect proteins transferred to membrane
sparge To spray. A sparger is the component of a fermentor that sprays air into the broth.
species In chemistry, a particular kind of atomic nucleus, atom, molecule, or ion.
specifications Tests, analytical procedures, and appropriate acceptance criteria that are numerical limits or ranges that establish a
set of criteria to which a raw material, drug substance, or drug product must conform to be considered acceptable for its
specificity The degree to which a substance exerts a definitive and distinctive influence on a particular part of the body and on the
course of a particular disease.
spectrometry Spectroscopy methods related to measurements of mass.
spectroscopy Study of the molecular absorption of light using optics. Different wavelengths and types of light can tell different things
about the molecules' identity and condition. Proteins are often studied using fluorescence and infrared (see FT-IR) spectroscopy.
Fluorescence spectroscopy induces molecules to emit light by the application of laser energy.
spike Adding a known amount of analyte from a laboratory standard, sometimes with something highly reactive (such as a radioactive
or fluorescent dye) to act as a tracer. Used to check a method for recovery or accuracy.