Guide to BioTerminology 2nd edition - - BioPharm International


Guide to BioTerminology 2nd edition

BioPharm International

phosphorylation Addition of a phosphate (PO 4 ) group to a molecule, usually enzymatically done by transferring a phosphate group from ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

physical state The form that matter takes, whether solid, liquid, gas, or plasma.

This scientist wears face-protection while working with the neurotoxic polyacrylamide gel used in SDS-PAGE.
pI Isoelectric point, the pH at which a substance has no net charge; above which a substance acts as a base and below which it acts as an acid. A solution of proteins or amino acids has its minimum conductivity and viscosity at the isoelectric point. The pI is a pH value for a given substance; for example, the pI of gelatin is pH 4.7. pI can be used to identify and characterize proteins..

Pichia pastoris An alternative yeast species proposed as a recombinant expression system. It performs posttranslational modifications that are more similar to human protein modifications than those performed by other yeasts used in fermentation.

pilot plant A medium-scale bioprocessing facility used as an intermediate in scaling up processes from the laboratory to commercial production.

placebo A fake treatment (usually the same formulation used for the real product, but without the active ingredient) administered to the control group in a controlled clinical trial so that the specific and nonspecific effects of the experimental treatment can be distinguished. The experimental treatment must produce better results than the placebo to be considered effective.

plasmid Hereditary material that is not part of a chromosome. Plasmids are circular and self-replicating and found (naturally in bacteria and some yeasts) in the cytoplasm of cells. They can be used as vectors for introducing up to 10,000 base-pairs of foreign DNA into recipient cells.

polarized light Light waves that vibrate transversely on a single plane, in contrast to ordinary lightwaves that vibrate in all directions

Preparative chromatography uses large columns like these.
polar solvent A solvent for molecules that have permanent electric dipoles.

polishing The final purification step(s) in a biopharmaceutical manufacturing process, usually involving an affinity or other refined chromatography method. Often this step uses the most expensive technique in the process because it handles the smallest amount of material.

polyacrylamide A high molecular-weight polymer of acrylamide (a neurotoxin) used as a support and separations matrix in electrophoresis and gel chromatography.

polymer A large molecule formed by the combination of at least five (and sometimes as many as 1,000) identical smaller molecules (monomers).

polymerase An enzyme that catalyzes the production of nucleic acid molecules.

polymerize To undergo or subject to polymerization, a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to form larger molecules that contain repeating structural units.

polysaccharide A kind of complex carbohydrate (macromolecule composed of long chains of simple sugars). Several polysaccharides from microorganisms have important commercial uses.

polysorbate 80 A hydrophilic surfactant commonly used as a pharmaceutical excipient, among other things.

polysorbates Complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.

polyvinyl A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid (a substance with little or no therapeutic value that is necessary in the manufacture, compounding, or storage of pharmaceutical preparations or drug dosage forms). Polyvinyls are used as solvents, diluting agents, suspending agents, and emulsifying agents.

blog comments powered by Disqus



Lundbeck CEO Resigns Due to Code of Conduct Breach
November 24, 2014
IMS: Global Spending on Medicines to Rise 30% by 2018
November 24, 2014
GPhA Issues Statement on Generic Drug Costs
November 20, 2014
Amgen Opens Single-Use Manufacturing Plant in Singapore
November 20, 2014
Manufacturing Issues Crucial to Combating Ebola
November 20, 2014
Author Guidelines
Source: BioPharm International,
Click here