Guide to BioTerminology 2nd edition - - BioPharm International


Guide to BioTerminology 2nd edition

BioPharm International

inoculum Material (usually cells) used to inoculate.

intellectual property Any and all patent applications or patents, or trade secrets that make up the proprietary information of a company.

interferon A type of cytokine glycoprotein made by animal cells to inhibit virus reproduction to fight infection. Interferons also affect growth and development (differentiation) in certain normal and tumor cells.

interleukins Cytokines produced by lymphocytes or macrophages that modulate the immune response.

intermediates Substances formed in the middle stages of a series of processing steps; "stepping stones" between a parent substance and a final product.

iontophoretic delivery Introduction of drugs through intact skin using the transfer of ions by applying a direct electric current.

IQ Installation Qualification; Documented verification that all aspects of a facility, utility, or equipment that can affect product quality adhere to approved specifications and are correctly installed.

In vitro (literally "in the dish") studies make use of laboratory accessories for controlled conditions. In vivo studies are performed using living organisms as subjects — and thus involve many more variables in their results.
IRB Institutional review board; a committee or other group (composed of medical, scientific, and nonscientific members) that is responsible for protecting the rights, safety, and well-being of human subjects participating in clinical trials.

ISO The International Organization for Standardization; a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 140 countries. ISO is a nongovernmental organization that promotes the standardization and related activities to facilitate the international exchange of goods and services. The organization accredits companies with its generic management system standards, ISO 9000 (for quality) and ISO 14000 (for environmental impact).

isoelectric focusing An analytical technique that uses electrophoresis in a pH gradient (for example 4–10) to determine the isoelectric point (see also pI) of a polypeptide. May be performed in a gel, in a liquid, or in a capillary tube (cIEF).

isolation chambers Laboratory chambers designed to protect workers from dangerous chemicals, organisms, or substances they are working with (or the reverse); includes hooded workstations, isolators, and clean rooms, for example.

isolators, glove boxes Self-contained clean spaces designed to protect product from contamination by room air, that exchange air with the surrounding environment only if that air has passed through a filter of at least HEPA quality. Workers use glove–sleeve assembles or half-suits and transfer materials in and out in ways that prevent contamination (usually through a "rapid transfer port"). Isolators can be flexible-wall enclosures of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or rigid-wall enclosures with stainless steel frames; others are open to the environment and sealed by air pressure.

This technician is using a glove box, a type of isolation chamber.
isomerization Changes that create isomers (molecules with the same chemical make-up but a different structure), which alters the activity of most proteins.

isopycnic Describes molecules that have the same buoyant density in ultracentrifugation. Molecules of differing densities form different regions in equilibrium within a density gradient medium.

isotonic Having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, thus easily mixed with the blood.

isotope An alternative form of an element having a different number of neutrons in its atomic nucleus.


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