inoculum Material (usually cells) used to inoculate.
intellectual property Any and all patent applications or patents, or trade secrets that make up the proprietary information of a company.
interferon A type of cytokine glycoprotein made by animal cells to inhibit virus reproduction to fight infection. Interferons also affect
growth and development (differentiation) in certain normal and tumor cells.
interleukins Cytokines produced by lymphocytes or macrophages that modulate the immune response.
intermediates Substances formed in the middle stages of a series of processing steps; "stepping stones" between a parent substance and a
iontophoretic delivery Introduction of drugs through intact skin using the transfer of ions by applying a direct electric current.
Installation Qualification; Documented verification that all aspects of a facility, utility, or equipment that can affect product quality adhere to
approved specifications and are correctly installed.
Institutional review board; a committee or other group (composed of medical, scientific, and nonscientific members) that is responsible for protecting
the rights, safety, and well-being of human subjects participating in clinical trials.
In vitro (literally "in the dish") studies make use of laboratory accessories for controlled conditions. In vivo studies are
performed using living organisms as subjects — and thus involve many more variables in their results.
ISO The International Organization for Standardization; a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 140 countries. ISO is a nongovernmental organization that promotes
the standardization and related activities to facilitate the international exchange of goods and services. The organization
accredits companies with its generic management system standards, ISO 9000 (for quality) and ISO 14000 (for environmental
isoelectric focusing An analytical technique that uses electrophoresis in a pH gradient (for example 4–10) to determine the isoelectric point (see
also pI) of a polypeptide. May be performed in a gel, in a liquid, or in a capillary tube (cIEF).
isolation chambers Laboratory chambers designed to protect workers from dangerous chemicals, organisms, or substances they are working with (or
the reverse); includes hooded workstations, isolators, and clean rooms, for example.
isolators, glove boxes Self-contained clean spaces designed to protect product from contamination by room air, that exchange air with the surrounding
environment only if that air has passed through a filter of at least HEPA quality. Workers use glove–sleeve assembles or half-suits
and transfer materials in and out in ways that prevent contamination (usually through a "rapid transfer port"). Isolators
can be flexible-wall enclosures of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or rigid-wall enclosures with stainless steel frames; others are
open to the environment and sealed by air pressure.
isomerization Changes that create isomers (molecules with the same chemical make-up but a different structure), which alters the activity
of most proteins.
This technician is using a glove box, a type of isolation chamber.
isopycnic Describes molecules that have the same buoyant density in ultracentrifugation. Molecules of differing densities form different
regions in equilibrium within a density gradient medium.
isotonic Having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, thus easily mixed with the blood.
isotope An alternative form of an element having a different number of neutrons in its atomic nucleus.