Guide to BioTerminology 2nd edition - - BioPharm International

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Guide to BioTerminology 2nd edition

BioPharm International


HCIC Hydrophobic charge induction chromatography; a type of HIC that is based on pH rather than salt concentration, allowing for elution under relatively mild conditions and eliminating the requirement for an associated filtration step in early separations.

HeLa Human cervical cancer cells, an established cell line that is commonly used in biotechnology.

hemocytometer A device for counting blood cells.

hemoglobin A complex protein (a 4-mer) in red blood cells that binds and releases oxygen, carrying it from the lungs to all other tissues.

HEPA filtration High-efficiency particulate air filter used to remove contaminants or to prevent particles from entering a clean room.

heteroatom An atom, other than carbon, in the ring of a heterocyclic compound (a ring of atoms of more than one kind).

heuristics Any of various problem-solving techniques that involve the use of subjective knowledge, hunches, trial-and-error, rule-of-thumb, and other such informal but generally accurate methods.

hGH Human growth hormone; an early biopharmaceutical. Formerly derived from cadaveric pituitary glands, this protein is now produced by recombinant expression.

HIC Hydrophobic interaction chromatography, a type of liquid chromatography that makes use of the relative solubility of proteins and matrix materials. Hydrophobic interactions are strongest at high ionic strengths, so salt is usually included to increase those levels.

high-throughput screening Robotic methods used to sort through thousands of chemical compounds by running assays on many at a time.

His Histidine; one of over 20 naturally occurring amino acids.

histochemistry A science that combines the techniques of biochemistry and histology to deal with the chemical changes and chemical constitution of tissues.

hit In drug discovery, a positive result in a high-throughput assay.

hormone A protein released by endocrine glands or sex organs to travel in the blood and act on tissues at another location in the body.

HPLC High-performance liquid chromatography or high-pressure liquid chromatography; a form of liquid chromatography in which a sample is forced at high pressure through a tube (column) that is packed tightly with chromatographic media.

human genome The complete set of human genetic instructions.

HVAC The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in a biopharmaceutical production facility.

hybridization The process of joining complementary strands of DNA to make an RNA–DNA hybrid; the partial pairing of DNA single strands from genetically different sources.

hybridoma An immortalized cell line (usually derived by fusing B-lymphocyte cells with myeloma tumor cells) that secretes desirable antibodies.

hydrolysis Literally "cleaved by water," a reaction in which the chemical bond attaching an atom or group of atoms to the rest of a molecule is severed, followed by attachment of hydrogen at the same point. Most often in BioPharm, the breakage of peptide bonds by addition of a water molecule.

hydrophilic Having an affinity for water; attracting, dissolving in, or absorbing water; readily absorbing moisture; having strongly polar molecular groups that readily interact with water.

hydrophobic Insoluble in water; the extent of insolubility; not readily absorbing water; resisting or repelling water, wetting, or hydration; or being adversely affected by water.

hydrophobicity The lack of an affinity for water.

hygroscopic Ready to take up and retain moisture.

I–J


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