cytokine A protein that acts as a chemical messenger to stimulate cell migration, usually toward where the protein was released. Interleukins,
lymphokines, and interferons are the most common.
cytopathic Damaging to cells, causing them to exhibit signs of disease.
cytoplasm The protoplasm of a cell outside the nucleus (inside the nucleus is the nucleoplasm). Protoplasm is a semifluid, viscous, translucent mixture of water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and inorganic salts
found in all plant and animal cells.
This is a simplistic model of DNA structure.
cytostat Something that retards cellular activity and production. This can refer to cytostatic agents or to machinery, such as those
that would freeze cells.
Dalton; the unit of molecular mass, very nearly equal to that of a hydrogen atom (precisely equal to 1 on the atomic mass scale),
named after John Dalton, who developed the atomic theory of matter (kDa, kilodalton).
Diethylaminoethyl; a weak ion-exchanger that is often coupled to a resin and used in charge based separation chromatography. It is an anion exchange
deamidation Removal of one or more amide groups from the Gln or Asn residue in a protein, converting the residues to Glu, Asp, or isoAsp.
Depending on the protein, this may have no effect, or major effects, on potency, stability, or solubility..
Declaration of Helsinki A set of recommendations or basic principles guiding medical doctors in the conduct of biomedical research involving human
deflashing The finishing procedure by which excess plastic (flash) is removed from a molding in BFS operations.
degradants The smaller parts that are left over after a molecule or solution degrades.
degradation Loss or reduction of quality, integrity, or character; a chemical reaction that breaks down a molecule into smaller parts.
delaminate To split apart into thin layers; the act of separating a laminate into layers.
delivery matrix A heterogeneous semisolid matrix (such as a biopolymer gel) for the sustained delivery of drug substances directly to the
tissues; a matrix can be modified to optimize the dosage or time period during which the drug is delivered.
denaturation A condition in which a protein unfolds or its polypeptide chains are disordered, rendering the molecule less soluble and usually
Electrophoresis samples must be carefully loaded to avoid rupturing the gel matrix.
denature To unfold a protein or break it up, changing its usual three-dimensional structure. Proteins can be denatured by chemical
action, heat, or even agitation of a protein solution.
denatured protein A protein having unfolded or disordered polypeptide chains, which render the molecule less soluble and usually nonfunctional.
Sometimes a denatured protein can be refolded (renatured).
dendritic ice Ice that branches like a tree; if water is cooled slowly, it forms dendritic ice crystals.
derivatization A sampling technique; chemical conversion into a derivative form for identification purposes.
design space The multidimensional combination and interaction of input variables (e.g., material attributes) and process parameters
that have been demonstrated to provide assurance of quality. Working within the design space is not considered a change. Movement
out of the design space is considered to be a change and would normally initiate a regulatory postapproval change process.
Design space is proposed by the applicant and is subject to regulatory assessment and approval. [ICH Q8]
desorption The opposite of adsorption; the release of adsorbed molecules, particles, or cells into the surrounding medium.