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= Axial dispersion parameter (band broadening which contributes to plate height, constant for a particular case), cm
= Molecular diffusion, cm2 /h
= Mass transfer parameter (band broadening which contribute to plate height, constant for a particular case), h-1
c = Concentration at column outlet, M
= Concentration at column inlet = load concentration, M
CV = Number of column volumes, dimensionless
= Gradient slope, M/CV = M
Gradient response = The resulting UV-gradient curve from a programmed (nominal) gradient.
= Plate height (a smaller number results in a sharper chromatographic peak and thus a more efficient column), cm
h = Time unit, hour
= Bed height, cm
M = Molar concentration, mol/L
= Plate number (the total number of plates in a column; higher number means longer column, results in better separation)
= Flowrate in column-volumes/time, CV/h
= Linear velocity, cm/h
= Retention volume, (the number of column volumes at which the product elutes), CV
Δ delay volume = The difference in delay volumes between different systems (lab, pilot and production)