Thus. any hint of fraud has a price attached to it, not just in the stem-cell world, but in the entire biopharm industry as
a whole. According to the June, 2005 issue of Nature, a study of 3,247 scientists showed that over one-third of respondents said they had participated in research "tampering"
by either changing the results of a study to accommodate the funding organization's presumably slanted point of view, or by
withholding evidence that might prove to contradict the results shown in a study. The good news is that only three percent
of the respondents admitted to intentionally publishing fraudulent and inaccurate research data. That is fairly astonishing
when considering that 33% of the respondents admitted to engaging in fraudulent research behavior.
A cynic — or someone who is considering plowing $10 million into the next big stem-cell research project — may well wonder
how many more are operating in the shadows, who are falsifying research data but not admitting it.
The stem-cell field can't afford any scent of scandal. It can't afford to send skewed messages to the investment community
that their work is tainted or untrustworthy. That's especially so at a time when stem-cell research was having to go hat in
hand to find the little money it was getting from the private venture capital sector. Even before the Hwang debacle, venture
money decision makers were skeptical about an unproven field of research that is, by most accounts, years, if not decades,
away from achieving legitimate commercial viability.
"Some of this stuff still looks like science experiments," said Ken Haas of venture capital company Abingworth Management,
in a recent issue of Wired News. The publication reports that Haas, in a speech to the International Society for Stem-Cell Research in San Francisco last
year, told audience members that the outlook for stem- cell funding was "bleak."
"Big pharmaceutical companies aren't funding early research," Wired News also reported. "And VCs have higher expectations in general from biotech firms because they perceive the industry as having
graduated from its freshman status. The investment necessary to bring a company public has doubled, Haas said, and the returns
According to the June 2005 issue of Red Herring, Venture capitalists have invested $441 million in 16 stem-cell-related businesses over the past five years. Sure, $441 million
is a lot of money to you and me, but it is peanuts to venture capitalists. Cancer and heart disease research earn that kind
of funding in a month.
Consider too, these numbers. The National Institutes of Health, the primary US government benefactor of stem-cell research
— as well as all medical research, for that matter — earmarked $24.3 million on embryonic stem-cell research in 2004, and
$203.3 million on adult stem-cell research. But the National Cancer Institute, an agency arm of the NIH, spent $4.7 billion
on cancer research. Or consider the fact that the NIH spent $3 billion on AIDs research and you begin to see how low stem-cell
outlays are on the totem pole.
While stem-cell research firms can count on larger sums of money from state and federal governments, like the $3 billion that
California has earmarked for stem cell research over the next eight years or so, it won't gain any real momentum until the
private sector begins to ante up in a big way.
Ask Advanced Cell Technologies. The Worcester, MA-based stem-cell research company was living high on the hog a year ago,
with Robert Lanza, vice president of scientific development, bragging to the press how cash was rolling in and would continue
to do so. "There's been an influx of interest in stem cells," said Lanza. "We're in a whole new world. We're flush with cash,
and just months ago we were struggling as a private company to even make payroll and to keep the phones on."
That was then and this is now. While the company did hit the ground running in 2005 with an $8 million cash infusion from
venture funders, the bloom fell off the rose fairly fast. In the last half of 2005, company stock went south, falling from
$9 per share to $3 per share.