However, there are considerations unique to each unit operation that apply during scale-down. Constraints associated with
equipment or methodology may prevent a "true" scale-down of a unit operation. Dead volumes and hold times are typically greater
at manufacturing scale. Path lengths of detectors typically vary between instruments at the lab and the manufacturing plant.
Wetted materials (gaskets, valves, and pumps) are not likely to be the same at two scales. Differences in cassette design
between two scales may impact the outcome of lifetime studies of UF and DF membranes.
Scale-down studies certainly increase the chances for a successful validation campaign, but they only provide "guidance."
The actual "confirmation" must be made at large scale. The only exception to this is the viral-clearance validation studies
that are performed at small scale.
Anurag Rathore, is a principal scientist at Amgen Inc., 30W-2-A, One Amgen Center Drive, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320, 805.447.4491, fax 805.499.5008, firstname.lastname@example.org
Raj Krishnan and Stephanie Tozer work for Amgen Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA. Dave Smiley, Steve Rausch and Jim Seely work for Amgen Inc., Longmont, CO. Anurag Rathore is a member of the Editorial Advisory Board.
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4. Rathore AS, Velayudhan A. Scale-up guidelines for preparative chromatography, Biopharm Int'l. 2003 Jan.; 16 (1):34-42.
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filtration of biopharmaceuticals - Part I. Biopharm Int'l. 2004 August; 17 (8):50-58.
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23-24; Santa Clara, CA.
7. Rathore AS, Sharma A, Zhang RJ, Chilin D. Scale-down modeling and characterization of a protein refolding step, Oral presentation,
227th American Chemical Society National Meeting, 2004 March 28-April 1; Anaheim, CA.